Diabetes is a condition where the amount of glucose in your blood is too high because the body cannot use it properly. This is because your pancreas doesn’t produce any insulin, or not enough insulin, to help glucose enter your body’s cells – or the insulin that is produced does not work properly (known as insulin resistance).
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body’s important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level.
Diabetic maculopathy is defined as retinal thickening within two disc diameters from the centre of the macula.
This refers to the effect of diabetes on the retina. Sugar within the blood can have a damaging effect on the fine blood vessels of the retina. This can lead to leakage of blood and fatty deposits into the retina. Vision can become blurred gradually if this leakage occurs in the macula. New fragile blood vessels can also grow on the surface of the retina which can lead to bleeding within the vitreous cavity and lead to sudden loss of vision.
A device that generates an intense beam of coherent monochromatic light (or other electromagnetic radiation) by stimulated emission of photons from excited atoms or molecules.
Laser photocoagulation uses the heat from a laser to seal or destroy abnormal, leaking blood vessels in the retina.
Lens of the eye
Biconvex transparent body situated behind the iris in the eye; its role (along with the cornea) is to focuses light on the retina.
An oval yellowish area surrounding the fovea near the centre of the retina in the eye, which is the region of keenest vision.
The retina is the fine film that coats the inside of the eyeball.
It consists of special cells that convert light into electrical impulses. These electrical signals are sent to the brain where they are processed enabling us to ‘see’.
The central part of the retina is called the macula. This area is responsible for fine vision and colour perception.
The yellow circle is the optic nerve which transmits the signals to the brain.
Retinal vein occlusions
This refers to a blockage in one of the veins of the retina. This can occur in the central retinal vein or one of its branches. This occurs suddenly and results in blurred vision. The degree of visual blur depends on the severity of the blockage and the location.
VEGF or Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is a naturally produced ‘signalling’ substance in the body that is thought to be partly responsible for the growth of the abnormal blood vessels in the eye that are responsible for Wet AMD. They work by blocking the action of the VEGF in the eye and so reduce the growth of these blood vessels. Unfortunately, the only way we can get these medicines where they need to be is with an injection in to the eye.
A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back to the heart. The deoxygenated form of hemoglobin (deoxy-hemoglobin) in venous blood makes it appear dark. Veins are part of the afferent wing of the circulatory system, which returns blood to the heart. In contrast, an artery is a vessel that carries blood that is high in oxygen away from the heart to the body.